What is the dative bond? Why it is required and how does it make the molecule stable?


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A dative bond, also known as a coordinate bond, is a type of chemical bond in which both electrons of the bond are provided by one atom, while the other atom does not contribute any electrons. In other words, one atom donates a lone pair of electrons to form a bond with another atom that has an empty orbital. Here donor atom acts as a Lewis base and the acceptor atom act as a Lewis acid.

Requirement of the dative bond: the need to achieve a more stable electron configuration for the participating atoms or ions. Dative bonds allow for the transfer of electron density, satisfying the electron requirements of the species involved and promoting stability.

They contribute to the stability of molecules by satisfying the octet rule, enabling the formation of complex structures, and facilitating electronic delocalization.